Autors: Raimonds Rublovskis .
21.gadsimta globālās drošības vidē arvien lielāka loma ir ķīmisko, bakterioloģisko, radioaktīvo un kodolieroču draudiem. It īpaši, tas skar šo ieroču globālu izplatību un iespēju, ka masu iznīcināšanas ieroči var nonākt organizētās noziedzības grupējumu rīcībā, kas tos nelegāli transportē globālā mērogā, un globālo teroristu grupējumu rīcībā, kas var pielietot masu iznīcināšanas ieročus pret civilās kritiskās infrastruktūras mērķiem un civiliedzīvotājiem.
EU has engaged into various activities in order to strengthen its role as global security and defense actor. One of such activities is related to Chemical, Bacteriological, Radiological and Nuclear CBRN) Threat and Risk mitigation. Certainly, CBRN threats are one of the most important in the global complex security environment of the 21st century with most devastating effect if used against civilian critical infrastructure. CBRN Proliferation and increasing ability of Non-State actors to acquire such a capabilities for the preparation of terrorist attack are amongst the most important threats.
EU is increasingly aware of the development of current global security trends, therefore, EU has engaged into serious initiative in order to mitigate CBRN risks and threats. EU CBRN Centers of Excellence (CoE) Initiative has been launched in 2010 and is being jointly implemented by United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) and the European Commission. EU CBRN Initiative involves more than 60 countries around the Globe and is created as a platform of cooperation, coordination and coherent national and regional CBRN Policy in order to mitigate criminal (proliferation, organized crime, and terrorism), natural (pandemics) and accidental (industrial catastrophes) risks.
Certainly, there is urgent need for enhanced cooperation and coordination of effort within CBRN domain. One of the most important issues is the development of National Response Plan within every state according to international standards. In Latvian case every relevant institution has to be involved into development of necessary response procedures. Those procedures and actions include further improvement of the national legal framework concerning CBRN domain, increase of the effectiveness of border control in order to combat illicit trafficking of CBRN elements, and sustainment of an effective National First Response Plan and relevant Consequence Management Plan.
Perhaps, Ministry of Interior with State Police and Border Guard, Ministry of Defense with National Armed Forces, Customs, Intelligence and Counterintelligence bodies, Health Care institutions are among those who has to be effectively involved in National CBRN Response Plan. In order to increase effectiveness of mitigation of CBRN threat, there should be increased and highly effective National interagency coordination and cooperation, as well as enhanced regional cooperation among relevant institutions.
EU CBRN CoE Initiative is timely and important action; however, one could see obvious challenges of implementation of such an initiative. NATO experience within CBRN domain is considerable, and there is doubt, if EU will be able to sustain CBRN Initiative without enhanced cooperation and coordination with NATO, the United States, China and Russia. On other hand, if EU wants to remain as significant actor in global security environment, CBRN issue should be addressed rather quickly and effectively.
The most important issue is to develop and maintain national strategic long term vision which is based on in depth analysis of global security environment of the 21st century. There should be clear vision of ways and means to counter CBRN threats in the most effective and efficient way. Certainly, Latvian institutions have to take active role in both EU and NATO CBRN activities.